Saraswathi Kantabharanam: (Bharatheeya Kavyasastra: Part XIII)
- V S Bhaskara Panicker
C/o e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
April 24, 2007
(This is the thirteenth part of the research paper that Mr. V S Bhaskara Panicker would like to share with narthaki readers)
Bhoja (1015 - 1055 AD)
The erudite scholar and literary critic, Bhoja was the king of Malwa. He lived in the first half of the eleventh century. He was keen on giving protection to poets and promote talents. Saraswathi Kantabharanam and Sringaaraprakasam are his compositions.
PATANEEYA PRAKARA: That which offers knowledge on what to do and what not to, and that which renders help in the journey of life, is known as Addhyeya. Addhyeyas are of four kinds - Kavya, Sasthra, Ithihasa and Kavyasastra.
SRAVYA KAVYA: Kavyas, which are not Drisya are Sravya. It is not recited by the actors, but only listened. These are of six types - Asi, Nandi, Namaskara, Vasthunirdesa, Akshiptha, Dhruva. Others are Dheya, to be contemplated.
DRISYA KAVYA: Drisya is what the actors re-tell, express through verbal representation, combined with gesticulation, danced by Natas, to offer enjoyment to Prekshaka. The important features are six - Lasya, Thandava, Schalika, Samba, Halleesaka and Rasa.
PRABANDHA KAVYA: These are prepared by the poets, avoiding Anouchithya and mixing Rasa and Alamkara, both in Vakyas as also in the Prabandha as a whole. It should have four Vrithis and Angas. With a hero strong and efficient, it offers the benefit of Purusharthas.
It should have five Sandhis, namely Mukha, Prathimukha, Garbha, Avamarsa and Nirvahana.
The Vrithas used should not be too long or too short ones, rich in Gunas, a different vritha being used at the end of the Sarga.
The process of making locations significant through the descriptions of cities, gardens, country, ocean and hermitages promotes Rasa.
Signifying the time aspects through the description of seasons, night, daytime, dawn and dusk, is also Rasa promoting.
Rasa is also made to overflow with the description of princes, princesses, ladies, the diverse marching of armies and charioteers.
Kavyas are made Rasa- replete, with the description of garden-plays, swimming, drinking, dance in moonlight, separation of lovers (Vipralamba), marriages and love acts.
State-crafts, diplomacy, battle, glory of the heroes, etc develop Rasa along with Purushartha.
After glorifying the hero with his qualities in the beginning, degrade the opponents (villains) in the same process.
It also gives pleasure in describing the ancestry, exploits, movements of enemies, victory over them by the hero as also his other glorious deeds.
REETHI: The style like Vaidabhi followed by the poets in Kavya is called Marga. The root of Rithi is Rngs, which means ‘going.' Rithi are of six types: Vaidarbhi, Panchali, Goudi, Avanthika, Ladeeya, and Magadhi. Vaidarbhi is that without Samasa, possessing all the grace of Slesha, and rings like the sound of the veena. Panchali is sweet and graceful. Samasas of five or six words, devoid of Ojas and Kanthi are its features. Goudeeya is with high sounding words, with the Gunas, Ojas and Kanthi. Avanthika is the style in between Vaidarbhi and Panchali, with Samasas of two four words. Ladeeya is admixture of all Rithis. Magadhi is that style that does not fall under any of the aforesaid Rithis.
The spot without the Gunas like Sleshas is affected by the Arithivath dosha. These are of three types; Sabda Pradhana, Arthapradhana, and Ubhayapradhana. Where Slesha, Samatha and Soukumarya are absent, it is Sabdapradhana. The absence of Slesha alone is Sidhila dosha, devoid of Samatha is Vishama and without Soukumarya is Kadtora.
The absence of the above mentioned three Gunas in Vakya is the Dosha Arthaprathara (Arithimath). The absence of Prasada is Aprasannatha dosha, that of Arthavyakthi is Neyartha, and Gramya dosha for that without Kanthi. The absence of sweetness is known as Anirveudha. The absence of Oudarya due to non-following of Rithi is called by Alankarikas as Analankara.
BHAVA: The state of Rithi/Rasa as explained when exhibited through the respective Alambana and vibhava is Bhava. The Sthayibhavas are those retained in the mind for a long time. When combined with Anubhava they sublimate into Rasa. Sathua is the mind composed of Rajas and Thama. The Bhava produced by Santha is Sathwika. Remaining embedded in the heart, the Vyabhichari bhavas make the Sthayibhava move the entire body, and act as the cause for Anubhava. They do not reappear for a second time.
Sringara, Veera, Karuna, Roudra, Adbhutha, Bhayanaka, Beebhathsa, Hasya, Preyan, Santha, Dantha (Udatha), Uddhatha - these are the twelve Rasas.
MAHARIDDHIS OF PREMA: The twelve Mahariddhis of Prema are Nithya, Naimithika, Samanya, Visesha, Praschanna, Prakasa, Krithrim, Akrithirama, Sahaja, Aharya, Ouranja, Visrambhaja.
PUSHTI OF PREMA
Chakshuprithi, Manasamga, repeated allusions, wailing, sleeplessness, emaciation, disinterestedness, shyness, vomiting, illness, fantasy, swooning, death.
VYAJAS: Vyaja (artistic falsehood) - three types; Anthar- vyaja, Bahirvyaja, Nirvyaja.. Udarka relating to Prema (sign of fulfillment) - 1) Dharmodarka 2) Arthodarka 3) Kamodarka.
SRINGARA RASA: The Artha that denotes respect and individuality is Sringara. With its combination Kavya becomes graceful. This Rasa is created in the innermost recess of the heart of the jivas, and is instrumental for the generation of suitable qualities in man. If the poet by his nature is sringari, in his Kavya, the world would look sunny. If otherwise, everything would be dull.
RATHI: Rathi is the experience of joy of the mind in the objects which it likes.
RATHI, THE STHAYIBHAVA: Siva, becoming restless like the sea on moon-rise casts his eyes on Devi's face, with Bimba lips. Here it is inappropriate (Anuchith) to cast eyes on Bimboshta to satisfy his desire. Here the sense of joy is inferred, though without any Sathwika Bhava.
RASANISHPATHI WITH RATHI ROOPA
Eg. On seeing Siva, Devi like a stream, obstructed the mount in the front, with shivering, kept the raised foot in that position, not being able to stand firm or go forward. The long standing Rathi was made vigorous (Uddeepana) by the direct sight developed through the Sweda, Sthambha, etc (sathwika) and Harsha, Smrithi etc.(of vyabhichari) and also body experience of raising the steps, finally evokes the Sthayibhava Rathi.
PREYAN, THE RASA: “She does what is good for me. This is all what she knows. But she is not aware of what she pleasingly does (for me).”
Here the love generated from Alambana, of the affectionate, simple, Nayaka's beloved, Nayaka Sthayibhava made vigorous by the Uddeepana of graceful nature, and developed by the Vyabhichari of Dhrithi and Smrithi experiences, Preyan transforms into Rasa.
UDATHA RASA: When, even an ordinary man without reserve begs for a Kannya, what to speak about Ravana who is the great grandson of Brahma and also world conqueror?
Here the Rasa Udatha is generated. The Uddeepana is Ravana's prayer and Lakshmana's encouragement. His contemplation, memory etc lead it forward, and through the inference of discrimination, courage etc. the Rasa Udatha is produced.
UDATHA RASA: (from Alankara) Rathi is produced from Nisarga, Samsarga, Oupamya, Adhyathma, Abhiyoga, Sampradaya, Abhimana, Vishaya. PREETHI is also like that. It is generated from Abhinaya.
Ouchithya Vichara Churcha
Kshemendra (1000 - 1080AD)
Kshemendra was the Acharya who propounded the Ouchithya Sampradaya. He was a contemporary of Anantha, the king of Kashmir who ruled the state from 1026 to 1063 AD. Abhinava Gupta was his guru. He has written as many as 23 books (available ones). His Ouchithya Vichara Churcha is the one connected to Alankara Sastra.
OUCHITHYA VICHARA CHARCHA
OUCHITHYA DEFINITION: The Bhava (state) of Uchitha is Ouchithya. The Padartha which is similar (Sadrisya-appropriate) for another is Uchitha.
KAVYA JEEVITHA: If Ouchithya which is the life force of Kavya is not observed in principle, what is the use of counting the Gunas and Alankaras in the serial order. Alankara is mere decoration and Guna simply Guna. The stability that is obtained through Sringara etc is Ouchithya, the life.
The mutually complementary beautiful Sabdartha Alankaras like Upama Uthpreksha, serve the purpose of decorations like bangles and garlands for external grace. That which is signified as Kavyaguna by the scholars is only qualitative aspects like honesty and good conduct. The long and imperishable life of Kavya is Ouchithya. In the absence of Ouchithya, Kavyas with Gunas and Alankaras remain lifeless. In Kavyas that become famous on account of Rasas like Sringara. The strong life force that is at par with Jivarasa is Ouchithya.
THE ASPECTS OF KAVYA LIFE: Of the multitudinous aspects that the Kavya body is composed of, Ouchithya includes Prana that is spread over the whole body. Its nerve centres are touched upon here.
PADA OUCHITHYA: A single appropriate word is the Tilaka on the forehead of a beautiful woman. That one word adds to the glow of other words, and creates beauty sense, in the whole.
VAKYA OUCHITHYA: Vakya constructed with Ouchithya (propriety) is like the glory of sacrifice and the reputation of a good character.
PRABANDHA OUCITHYA: The Prabandha has a meaning concept as a whole, say, perhaps the glorification of Siva. Care should be taken to ensure that this meaning is in no way affected by the use Pada, Alankara or other aspects.
GUNOUCHITHYA: The propriety of the Artha brought in should enhance Ojas, Prasada, Mathuria, Soukumarya.
ALANKAROUCHITHYA: Alankara becomes an alankara only when worn in the appropriate place. With use of appropriate Alankaras, the language becomes graceful.
RASA OUCHITHYA: Rasa illumined by Ouchithya pervades the Sahridaya's heart in full and makes it bloom.
THATHOUCHITHYA: By stating Thathua (principles) in the appropriate manner through the force of the established faith, becomes heart felt and fully comprehended.
SATHOUCHITHYA: The statement of the poet should keep propriety with regard to Sathuaguna. Such words when comprehended through pure intelligence, become graceful.
SWABHAVOUCHITHYA: The characteristics of people should be described in such a manner that the natural aspects are maintained.
PRATHIBHOUCHITHYA: The imaginative aspects should be utilised properly keeping in view the contexts.
NEED FOR OUCHITHYA: The ornaments are used in the proper places on the body. For example the ear-rings are not used on the ankles. In the same manner Alankaras or Guna, however profound they might be, would appear useless, if not used in the proper places, keeping in view what the situation demands.
V S Bhaskara Panicker has been writing mainly in Malayalam language. He has offered his research paper on Bharatheeya Kavyasastra to narthaki.com