Alankara Sarvaswa: (Bharatheeya Kavyasastra: Part XV)
- V S Bhaskara Panicker
C/o e-mail: email@example.com
June 24, 2007
(This is the fifteenth part of the research paper that Mr. V S Bhaskara Panicker would like to share with narthaki readers)
Ruyyata (1130 - 1160 AD)
He is also known as Rajanaka Ruyyata and it is presumed that he also hails from Kashmir. The books by him available are Sari-Dayaleelam, Vyakthi Viveka Tika and Alankara Sarvaswa. In Alankara Sarvaswa, the Alankaras are classified. He is a dhwany- vadin. Samudrabandha, who hailed from Kerala, was his most important commentator.
PREVIOUS ACHARYAS: In the domain of literature, the renowned Alankarikas like Bhamaha, Udbhada and others held the view that Prathiyamana would give flourish to Vachyartha. They had therefore used this Vyangya in combination with Alankara. They had followed it two ways. 1) Parapeksha: To establish one's own intended meaning degrade the other meaning and 2) Paratham Swa Samarpanam: To make another meaning apt, give up one's own meaning.
Rudrata had expressed Bhavalankara in two ways. In Alankaras like Roopaka, Deepaka¸ Apahnuthi, Thullya Yogitha to give flourish to the meaning, Upama was interpolated. Uthpreksha was received as real Pratheeyamana (Vyangya). The Alankaras like Rasavath, Preyas, Rasa bhava were described as ingredients adding to the beauty of the Vachya.
Vamana described Lakshana (Sadrisya Nibanthatha) as Vakrokthi and considered Dhwany as Alankara. The arrangement of words agreeing to Gunas was declared as an Alankara.
Udbada considered Guna and Alankara as of equal importance. The difference was only in the subject matter. The construction should be based on Kavya principles. Thus Alankara was most important to him as his predecessors thought.
According to Kunthaka, Vakrokthi based on four Vrithis (Chathurthapoorvaka) is the soul of Kavya. He holds the view that Kavya is constructional in character (Vyapara). Alankara is only a particular mode of expression. Though Pratheeyamana (Vyangya) has three aspects, the subject of the poet's endeavour is construction of expressions. The domain of Dhwany is set up with Upachara and Vakratha. The picturesque effect of expression is the soul of Kavya. Vyangyartha (suggestion) is not the soul according to Kunthaka.
Ananda Vardhana declares that after Vrithi, Vyanjana, Abhidha, Thathparya Lakshana are the factors to be adopted in the process of Kavya making. Dhwanana, Dyothana etc are other expressions for these. In his opinion, what is left as understood is not Vakyartha and Vakyartha is actually Vyangya. Guna and Alankaras are its decorations (of vyangya). That Vyangya is the resting place (final end). And that is the soul of Kavya.
It is through the subject (theme) that the process takes shape. The poetical process assumes importance due to the importance of the subject. The shape of the process is not conceivable, and the whole burden has to be borne by the Kavya subject. Therefore Vyangya the subject is the soul of the Kavya. (The subject assumed the form of suggestion). With Guna and Alankara its beautiful domain is created. Rasa is Kavya, which cannot be expressed through the form of Alankara. Alankara is Upaskaraka (that which offers grace). The meaningful Vyangya is therefore the soul of Kavya.
The author of Vyakthi Viveka (Mahima Bhatta) on the assumption that Vachyartha is the Linga of the Vyangyartha, established that Vyanjana involves Anumana. This appears to lack pre-thinking because, there is no identity between Vachyartha and Vyangya, and also that one does not generate the other.
The Vyanjana process (suggestion) is based on Vyangya. When Vyangya is more important, it is Dhwany and when otherwise (secondary) it is Guneebhootha Vyangya. Thus two aspects are conceived. (Dhwany Kavya and Guneebhootha Vyangya Kavya). When Vyangya is not clear, Chitha (Alankara-pictorial) emerges as a Bheda. Of these two Dhwany Kavya is the superior one. When Dhwany becomes Lakshana based, it is Avivakshitha Vachya, and when Abhidha based it is Vivakshithapara. The first one has again two Bhedas, namely Arthanthara Samkramitha Vachya and Arthantha Thirskritha Vachya. The second, ie. Vivakshithanya Para Vachya has also got two bhedas; Asamlakshya Krama Vyangya and Samlakshya Krama Vyangya. The Sabda based Vasthu Dhwany (Rasa), Asamlakshya Krama Vyangya, and the meaning based Vasthu Dhwany is Samlakshya Krama Vyangya. That which is Sabda and Artha based (or both) are Vasthu Dhwany and Alamkara Dhwany.
From the Tika of Samudra Guptha
Kavya is qualified Sabdartha. The special aspect of Sabda and Artha are produced through Dharma (Kavidharma), treatment of the subject and Vyangya. Of these, the first and third have two divisions each. 1) Dharma included Alankara and Guna and it is again sub-divided as Alankara Sampradaya and Guna Sampradaya. The protagonist of Alankara are Bhattodbhada etc and of Guna Vamana and others. The Guna Sampradaya is also known as Rithi Sampradaya.
The Kavi Vyapara has also got two aspects. 1) Bhanithi Vaichithrya krith 2) Bhogakrithathua & Bhojakathua Vyapara. The first one is Vakrokthi Sampradaya; The Bhojakathua concept is Bhattanayaka's. The fifth one is Dhwany Sampradaya - special aspects for Sabda and Artha through Vyangya.
V S Bhaskara Panicker has been writing mainly in Malayalam language. He has offered his research paper on Bharatheeya Kavyasastra to narthaki.com