The Ramayana reliefs of Prambanan as well as the reliefs of other central Javanese sites show quite clearly that dance was an important activity in the religious and social life of Java in the 9th 10th century. Dance is seen in all such reliefs as integral part of the narrative in a ritual and celebratory context. But, uniquely, dance also appears as a stand-alone 'dance narrative' in the dance panels of Candi Siwa, the main temple of the Prambanan complex, in other words, constituting self contained dance phrases which can be strung together to create a choreography.
('Still in defence of dance as an archaeological issue' by Alessandra Lopez y Royo).

Kuttu can be divided into three: Atiyantarakkuttu, Kazhchakkuttu and Vazhivadukuttu. The performances held year after year according to prior program is called Atiyantarakkuttu, while those that are held specifically on specific occasions are called Kazhchakkuttu, and Vazhivadukuttu as offering to the deity.
('Kudiyattam in temples' by Ammannur Madhava Chakyar, Nartanam, May - Aug 2008)

Serfoji II was the Maratha ruler of Tanjavur from 1798 to 1832. He was a great patron of Bharatanatyam and himself wrote many Nirupanams for dance in the Marathi language but in Carnatic ragas. In his time, there were eighteen items in a Bharatanatyam performance and these were Jayastuti, Sharanu Sharanu, Alaru (This was perhaps Alarippu), Sollu, Shabdam, Varnam, Padam, Swarajati, Abhinaya Padam, Tillana, Abhinaya Padam, Jakkini Padam, Geetham, Prabandham, Triputa, Shloka Varnam, Kavuthuvam, Mangale.

Serfoji patronized four brothers called Chinnaiah, Ponnaiah, Sivanandam and Vadivelu who came to be known later on as the Tanjore Quartette. They reduced the eighteen items to eight and introduced the Margam which is now in force.
('Bharatanatyam in History' by T S Parthasarathy).


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