Ramayana reliefs of Prambanan – as well as the reliefs of other central
Javanese sites show quite clearly that dance was an important activity
in the religious and social life of Java in the 9th – 10th century. Dance
is seen in all such reliefs as integral part of the narrative in a ritual
and celebratory context. But, uniquely, dance also appears as a stand-alone
'dance narrative' in the dance panels of Candi Siwa, the main temple of
the Prambanan complex, in other words, constituting self contained dance
phrases which can be strung together to create a choreography.
('Still in defence of dance as an archaeological issue' by Alessandra Lopez y Royo).
can be divided into three: Atiyantarakkuttu, Kazhchakkuttu and Vazhivadukuttu.
The performances held year after year according to prior program is called
Atiyantarakkuttu, while those that are held specifically on specific occasions
are called Kazhchakkuttu, and Vazhivadukuttu as offering to the deity.
('Kudiyattam in temples' by Ammannur Madhava Chakyar, Nartanam, May - Aug 2008)
II was the Maratha ruler of Tanjavur from 1798 to 1832. He was a great
patron of Bharatanatyam and himself wrote many Nirupanams for dance in
the Marathi language but in Carnatic ragas. In his time, there were eighteen
items in a Bharatanatyam performance and these were Jayastuti, Sharanu
Sharanu, Alaru (This was perhaps Alarippu), Sollu, Shabdam, Varnam, Padam,
Swarajati, Abhinaya Padam, Tillana, Abhinaya Padam, Jakkini Padam, Geetham,
Prabandham, Triputa, Shloka Varnam, Kavuthuvam, Mangale.
Serfoji patronized four brothers called Chinnaiah, Ponnaiah, Sivanandam and Vadivelu who came to be known later on as the Tanjore Quartette. They reduced the eighteen items to eight and introduced the Margam which is now in force.
('Bharatanatyam in History' by T S Parthasarathy).